Water is a very important medium in a wide range of industries, where it is normally encountered as raw water, process water or as wastewater. This water needs to be treated prior to entering the process to ensure that its quality and properties will support the industrial process as effectively as possible. Furthermore, a clear policy today among industries that use large amounts of water such as steel, food, beverage etc., is to recycle and reuse water to an increasingly high degree, thereby reducing water consumption as well as pollution – all of which lead to cost reductions.
Finally the wastewater needs to be treated so that it can be released into the municipal sewer systems or to the recipient and ultimately back into its source. Water treatment is any process that makes water more acceptable for a specific end use. The end usage may be drinking, industrial water supply, irrigation, river flow maintenance, water recreation or many other uses including being safely returned to the environment. Water treatment removes contaminants and undesirable components, or reduces their concentration so that the water becomes fit for its desired end-use.